文章摘要
债权人代位权的类型化构造
Typification of Creditor’s Substitutionary Rights
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  债权人代位权;债权回收;责任财产保全;特定债权保全;保存行为代位
英文关键词:  creditor’s substitutionary rights; debt recovery; preservation of liable assets; preservation of specific debts; substitution for preservation acts
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作者单位
俞彦韬  
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中文摘要:
      民法典中的债权人代位权制度,存在“收取型代位权”与“保全型代位权”两种形象的杂糅。收取型代位权是一种简易的债权强制回收手段,其正当性基础在于债权人权利实现的紧迫性。此种代位权只能适用于基于金钱债权代位金钱债权,或基于交付请求权代位同标的之交付请求权。收取型代位权的确立,将使债权人取得目标债权的收取权限。次债务人向债权人履行后,后者的债权因受债务人清偿而消灭,标的物所有权因指令交付的完成而连锁移转。传统的保全型代位权旨在确保债务人的责任财产,在适当解释强制执行规则的基础上,将无存在的必要,应将其转用于特定债权的保全,并保留保存行为的代位,以弥补民事保全制度的不足。保全型代位权的行使,会为债权人创设对目标权利的管理权限,代位实现的利益,归属于债务人自身。
英文摘要:
      In the Chinese Civil Code, the system of creditor’s substitutionary rights presents a blend of two distinct images, i.e., the “recovery-oriented substitutionary right” and the “preservation-oriented substitutionary right”. The recovery-oriented substitutionary right serves as a simple means of compulsory debt recovery, justified by the urgency of creditor’s rights realization. This category of substitutionary right is only applicable to the substitution of money claims based on monetary debts, or the substitution of delivery claims based on identical delivery requests. The establishment of the recovery-oriented substitutionary right enables the creditor to obtain the authority to collect the target debt. After the secondary debtor fulfills the obligation to the creditor, the creditor’s right is extinguished due to the secondary debtor’s repayment, and the ownership of the subject matter is transferred because of the completion of the instructed delivery. The traditional preservation-oriented substitutionary right aims to guarantee the debtor’s assets. However, with an appropriate interpretation of the rules of compulsory enforcement, it is no longer necessary. Instead, it should be utilized for the preservation of specific debts, and for the preservation acts to compensate for the deficiencies of the civil preservation system. The exercise of the preservation-oriented substitutionary right enables the creditor to establish management authority over the target rights, and the benefits of substitutionary realization belong to the debtor himself/herself.
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