文章摘要
中国刑事司法证明“唯客观化”批判
Critique onthe Objectivist Approachto Criminal Justice Proof
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  刑事司法证明;唯客观化;认识论;“启发式”进路
英文关键词:  criminal justice proof; objectivism; epistemology; “heuristic” approach
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作者单位
熊晓彪  
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中文摘要:
      中国刑事诉讼已然发展形成一套基于客观证据、客观事实、客观化方法和客观化标准的“客观(化)形式”证据、证明理念与方法体系,可称其为“唯客观化”进路。该进路的典型司法实务样态呈现为依赖客观化证据定案,无印证不定案,法定证据判案,追求形式铁案等。“唯客观化”进路混淆证据、事实与客观存在等范畴,违背诉讼认识规律,忽略事实推论过程,背离实质庭审,其无助于中国刑事司法证明理论与方法的革新。司法证明应当建立在认识论而非本体论之上,应涵盖证明结构、证据解释、对比判断及信念要求等内容,据以得出的结论具有盖然性和可错性。根据人类在不完全信息状态下依靠经验推理、观察感知等进行决策的特点,可以把能够反映和揭示司法证明应然特性的方法论体系称为“启发式”进路。在该进路下,中国刑事司法证明应迈向多元证明方法并行发展,承认证明结论的盖然性和可错性,强调实质庭审和严格事实推论的新格局。
英文摘要:
      China has developed a set of objective formal systems consisting of evidence, proof concepts and methods in criminal procedure, which can be called the “objectivist” approach, based on objective evidence, objective facts, objectified methods and objectified standards. This approach presents such typical patterns in criminal justice practice as relying on objective evidence to decide cases, making decisions only with verification, deciding cases by legally prescribed evidence, and pursuing judgments that are based on irrefutable evidence. The “objectivist” approach confuses evidence, facts and objective existence, deviates from the law of litigation cognition, ignores the process of fact inference and departs the substantive trail, thus is unable to realize the progress and innovation of the theories and methods of proof in China’s criminal justice. Judicial proof, which is based on epistemology rather than ontology, should have such contents as proof structure, evidence interpretation, contrast judgment and belief requirements, and the conclusions drawn from it are characterized by probability and fallibility. According to the method by which human beings make decisions and judge things through experience, reasoning, observation, intuition and other informal knowledge under the condition of incomplete information, the methodological system that can reveal and reflect the required characteristics of judicial proof can be called the “heuristic” approach. With this approach, China should create a new pattern of criminal judicial proof in which multiple proof methods are developed in parallel, the probability and fallibility are recognized, and the substantive trial and rigorous inference process are emphasized.
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