文章摘要
侵权责任与隐私权——责任人和行为人分离情形下的考量
Tort Liability andthe Rightto Privacy
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  隐私权;监护人责任;用人单位责任;学校责任;安全保障责任
英文关键词:  privacy right; guardian’s liability; employer’s liability; school’s liability; liability for safety
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窦海阳  
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中文摘要:
      在监护、劳动、教育、安保等关系的侵权责任中,责任人和行为人相分离。在责任的压力下,责任人可能主动采取对行为人隐私权产生消极影响的监控、披露等防范措施。对未成年人、精神障碍者、劳动者、学生、公众场所活动者等行为人的隐私权,套用一般模式进行保护并无实益,而应将其作为责任的设置与解释是否合理的必要条件考虑进去,从而前置性地消除主动的侵害因素。要达到责任的合理性,需从技术的抽象中还原责任人与行为人之间关系的全貌,综合考虑关系的多层内容及价值导向,将隐私权作为反制隶属而体现行为人人格尊严与自主自决等价值的有力工具。针对行为人隐私权在典型意义上的内容及侵害样态,可设置更具体的规则。新技术对行为人隐私权内容及侵害样态的影响应当反映在具体规则上,对新技术的规制不能代替责任的合理设置与解释。
英文摘要:
      In torts liability in guardianship, labor, education, security and other similar relationships, the responsible person and the perpetrator are separated. Under the pressure of liability, the responsible person may take the initiative to adopt precautionary measures such as monitoring and disclosure that negatively affect the perpetrator’s right to privacy. It is not useful to apply a general model to protect the privacy right of such perpetrators as minors, the mentally impaired, laborers, students, and those who are active in public places. Instead, the privacy right should be taken into account as a necessary condition for the reasonableness of the establishment and interpretation of liability, so as to eliminate proactive factors of infringement in the first place. To achieve the reasonableness of liability, it is necessary to restore the whole picture of the relationship between the responsible person and the perpetrator from the technical abstraction, to consider the multi-layered meaning of the relationship and the value orientation, and to use the privacy right as a powerful tool to counteract the subordination and to embody the perpetrator’s values of human dignity and autonomy and self-determination. More specific rules can be set for the content and infringement patterns of the perpetrator’s privacy right in the typical sense to match with tort liability. The impact of new technologies on the content and infringement patterns of the perpetrator’s privacy right should be reflected in specific rules, but the regulation of new technologies cannot replace the reasonable setting and interpretation of tort liability.
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